Bayam Forest District, North Central Turkey
by Mustafa Tufekcioglu and Omer Kucuk
Located in the North Central Turkey the Bayam Forest District inTaskopru, Kastamonu lies between the latitude of 41o 27’24’’N and 41o 35’ 11’’ N and the longitude of 34o 13’12’’ E and 34o 26’ 30’’ E. The size of the pilot area is 16006.2 ha of which 80 percent is forested. The remaining 20 percent is used for agricultural and residential purposes. The major species in the site include black pine (Pinusnigrasupsp. pallasiana), Scotts pine (PinusSilvestris L.), oriental beech (Fagusorientalis), hornbeam (Carpinusbetulus), field elm (Ulmus minor Gill.) and various oak species. Main soil type of the area is brown forest soils.
The climate showing tropical properties till the mid-Miocene in and around Anatolia changed to hot and humid tropical climate in the Lower Middle Miocene, to subtropical/monsoon climate in the Upper Miocene and to an extension of Mediterranean climate with winter rains in the Pliocene within the frame of the regional climate zone changes. The type of this climate being peculiar to the coastal mountains of the Black Sea is characterized by cool-to-cold winters and warm summers with scattered rains.
According to the data gathered from the Kastamonu central station for 34 years (1975-2009) the mean annual temperature is 9.6 0C, the hottest month is July (20.2 oC) and the coldest month is January (-0.8 oC). The average annual precipitation for the site is 449.6 mm, the wettest month is May (71.1 mm) and the driest month is February (25.8 mm). The precipitation regime reflects an increase from winter to spring, a sharp decrease from spring to summer and stays constant in fall. The total annual precipitation increases from south to north. The mean annual precipitation of Kastamonu is 489.1 mm.
Most of the area formed on the Eosen and Oligosen age of the III. Tersiyer; conglomerate, sandy and clayey schists, and marl layers on the the metamorhic series in loose soils. Other parts are form by the masses of the Kretase age of the II. Mesozoik time, and I. Paleozoic time. These often constitute the metamorhic series.Epizone and Mesozone green schist stone series, serpentine, schist, red radiolaritic schists, less metamorphosed diabases, red limestone, mica schist, graphitic schist and quartz schist stones are the encountered rock types in the area.
The area has good water potential. Yündoluk Brook, Karanlık Stream, Akçapınar Stream and especially Kazanpınarı Stream and Hızar Brook are important water resources. There is no water problem within the area during the summer. These streams flow year-round. When claiming up higher elevation in the area, water sources are getting scarce, especially during the late summer time.
The terrain is hilly and the elevation ranges between 500 m and 1800 m from the Mean Sea Level.Elevation differences caused by the typographic structure exhibit a rich floristic and faunistic composition of different habitats. Boyabat is located between Hanönü on the west side and Taşköprü on the south and east sides, an area which is rich in the species representing the Iran-Turan plant geography. Plant and animal species belonging to different phytogeographical regions are also found thanks to the glacial period and the following hot periods seen in the Anatolia during the geologic eras.
Ecosystem and Habitat
Forest ecosystems composing the continental ecosystem range between 830-1515 meters. Pure and mixed groups of deciduous and coniferous taxa are found among these ranges. These groups are natural and have been managed mostly by Bayam for many years in line with the forest management plans. A small part is also managed by the Forest Sub-district Directorate of Kuzalıç.
Pure and mixed Black Pine-Oak stands(PinusnigraArn. subsp. nigravar. caramanica -Quercuspetraea(Mattuschka) Liebl. subsp. iberica(Steven ex Bieb.)Krassiln.-QuercuspubescensWilld.) are mixed with various herbaceous species between 830-1100 meters.
Black pine (PinusnigraArn. subsp. nigravar. caramanica), at times becoming coniferous pure groups at 1000-1200 meters, forms mixed coniferous-deciduous groups with scotch pine (PinussylvestrisL.) involving beech (Fagusorientalis L.) between 1200-1350 meters. Scotch pine, among the coniferous tree taxa, rules between 1300-1515 meters and extends until the upper limit.
Mammalsthat are found in the Taskopru are Erinaceuseuropeaus, Sorexaraneus, Lepuseuropeaus, Canis lupus, Vulpesvulpes, Mustelanivalis, Martesmartes, Ursusarctos, Susscrofa, Capreoluscaprelus, Cervuselaphus.
Forest of the Taskopru is also rich for the bird species including Buteorufinus, Pernisapivorus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco peregrinus, Alectorischukar, Perdixperdix, Coturnixcoturnix, Fulicaatra, Streptopeliaturtur, Cuculuscanorus, Bubo bubo, Asiootus, Athenenoctua,Tyto alba, Apusapus, Meropsapiaster, Upupaepops, Picusviridis, Dendrocopussyriacus, Galeridacristata, Lullulaarborea, Ptyonoprognerupestris, Motacillaflavafeldegg, Motacilla alba alba, Troglodytes troglodytes, Phoenicurusphoenicurus, Saxicolarubetra,Qenantheisabellina,Turdusmerula, Turduspilaris, Parusater, Paruscaeruleus, Sittaneumayer, Oriolusoriolus, Laniuscollurio, Garrulusglandarius, Pica pica, Covusfrugilegus, Corvuscorax, Sturnus vulgaris.
In TaskopruDistrict Kastamonu, majority of the peoplelives in urban or semi-urban areas. There are also rural areas and many small villages including Gundogdu, Pasakoy, Haciali, Cambasi, Badembekdemir and Oymaagacsoku.The major income for these small town people are agriculture and livestock. Table 1 below shows the resident population of these villages and towns of Taskopru according the last census in 2009.
Table 1.Villages in TaskopruDistrict and their population.
DistrictVillage Male Female Total
TaskopruGundogdu 23 25 48
TaskopruPasakoy 83 78 161
TaskopruHaciali 23 31 54
TaskopruCambasi 52 41 93
TaskopruBadembekdemir 63 65 128
TaskopruOymaagacseki 41 56 97
Although northernpart of Turkey is not as much as prone to forest fire as the southern and western, data shows that within the last two decades the number of fire hasbeen in increase for the BayamForest District (Table 2). In these fire outbreaks human factor has the greatest share.
Table 2. The number of forest fires occurred in Bayam Forest District between 1962 and 2013.
Years Numbers of fire Area Burned (ha)
BrushCrown Total Average (yr-1) Brush Crown Total Average (yr-1)
1962-1982 5 10 15 0.7 7.4 183 191.4 9.1
1983-2003 26 7 33 1.561.5 177.5 237.9 11.3
OGM, 2009.FonksiyonelOrmanAmenajmaniPlani. KastamonuOrmanBolgeMudurlugu, TaskopruIsletmeMudurlugu, BayamIsletmeSefligi.