Menoikio Mountain, North Greece.

by Paschalis Koutalakis and George N. Zaimes


General Information

The pilot area is the Menoikio Mountain that a located in Northern Greece and specifically in the Eastern Macedonia Region (Longitude: E 23⁰48’ 0”, Latitude: 41⁰10’ 00”). It belongs politically to both Serres and Drama prefectures.  It is surrounded by the mountains of Vrontou and Falakro in the northwest and northeast, respectively, while in the east and south are the plains of Drama (Aggitis Basin) and Serres (Strymonas Basin). The pilot area covers approximately 503.25 km2.



According to the Greek Law 1739/1987 (ΦΕΚ. 201 Β/20-11-1987) the country is divided into 14 major river basin districts. Menoikio Mountain belongs to the Eastern Macedonia Basin (number 11) which covers an area of 7,281 km2. The largest sub-basin of Basin 11 is the Strymonas (along with Aggitis) and cover an area of 5,990 km2. The rest of the sub-basin are either endorheic or discharge directly to sea. Strymonas (or Struma) is a river in the Balkan Peninsula with a total length of about 392 km, 274 km of which are in Bulgarian territory and 118 km in Greek. Aggitis is the main tributary of Strymonas River in Greece and discharges in it near the village of Mirkinos. The total length of Aggitis is 75 km and its watershed covers approximately 2,826 km2 (Papafilippou-Pennou 2004; Pennou 2009; Orfanidou 2008). Basin 11 also includes a number of smaller watersheds.

Menoikio Mountain belongs to 5 of these smaller watersheds: northeast-east is belongs to the Aggitis-Prosotsani watershed, south to the Aggitis-Symvoli watershed, southwest-west to the Strymonas-Somata watershed, west to the Strymona-Agios Ioannis watershed and north to the Aggitis-Maara watershed. The east and south watersheds of Menoikio discharge in Aggitis River while the northern watersheds in Strymonas River. The west catchments of Menoikio discharged in the ancient lake of Achinos but in 1931 the lake and the marshes were drained and after the construction of artificial channels these west catchments discharge in the Strymonas River (Psilovikos et al. 2001).

The streams that run through Menoikio Mountain are intermittent and ephemeral torrents typical of the Mediterranean Region. The hydrographic network is complex as it combines dendritic and parallel stream paterns. This formation is caused because of the geology, the morphology and the tectonic activity.(Papafilippou-Pennou 2004; Pennou 2009). The main torrents of Menoikio are: Makrypotamou, Agiou Ioanni (Elaiona), Kokkinorema (Timiou Prodromou) Kranorema, Mylona, Drosero and Gazorou.


The karstic system of Menoikio is complex with many springs and unexplored caves. The mean discharge of the springs of Agios Ioannis (near the city of Serres) is 0.51 m3/s, based on recorded data from 1987-1991. Also, the Karstic system in South Menoikio (Aggitis) discharges through many springs (Symvoli, Galazia Nera etc.).

According to Vavliakis (1989) qanats (or kariz) can be found in many villages such as Leukothea and Nea Zichni. The qanats are constructed underground canals used to transport the subsurface water in dry areas. Subsurface constructions are very popular in Middle East countries because of the arid or semi-arid climate and the water shortage. These contsuctions minimize losses from evaporation. The qanats of Menoikio were constructed during the Ottoman Empire (Blumenstein et al. 2010).



The climate of Greece is in most regions typical of the Mediterranean: mild and rainy winters, relatively warm and dry summers and plenty of sunshine throughout most of the year. Several regions of Greece present a wide variety of climate subtypes, always within the framework of the Mediterranean climate. This is due to the topography of the country that has great elevation differences. There are great Mountain Ranges (Pindos) running through the central part of the country along with other scattered mountainous. In addition, Greece has the most extensive seacoast line in Europe that influences the country’s climate.

The pilot area has the transition type climate (Mediterranean to Middle-European type) characterized by precipitation that ranges from 600-1000mm (Nigritinos 2005; Papafilippou-Pennou 2004). The average monthly temperature falls below 15⁰C in November, with the first appearance of frost days from the beginning of the month. The coldest month of the year is January and warmest are July and August.



The pilot area lies exclusively in the Rhodope massif while to the west and south the Neogene and Quaternary sediments of Strymonas is the geotectonic limit with the Serbomacedonian zone. As a part of the mass of Rhodope it is dominated by crystalline and igneous rocks, age: Pro-alpine or Alpine.

 According to the classification based on Papanikolaou and Panagopoulos (1981) the Rhodope massif separates the upper ″section of Sidironero″ in the North along the Greek-Bulgarian borders and the lower "section of Pangaio" occupies the western, southwestern Rhodope. The limit is the tectonic line that has a general direction NW-SE where the section of Sidironero overlays the section of Pangaio from North to South.

The section of Sidironero consists mainly of gneiss, schist, amphibolite, thin intercalations of marble and migmatites. The section of Pangaio consists of a lower horizon with gneiss, schist and amphibolite, a middle horizon of thick marbles and an upper horizon alternating schists and marbles.

Significant geological formations that are worth mentioning are the karst phenomena occurring in Menoikio. These karst formations (dolines, uvales and poljes) were formed from the existing climate and the tectonic activity. They are found in marbles and in different heights (Vavliakis et al. 1981).


Tectonic Activity-Earthquakes

According to the Seismic Hazard map (2000), Greece is divided in three seismic activity zones. Menoikio belongs to the first zone (zone 1) characterized as low seismic activity. The peak ground activity is given from the equation:        

A = g * α

Where g = Earth’s gravitation (9.81 m/s2) and α= 0.16 for zone 1 (Menoikio), 0.24 for zone 2 and 0.36 for zone 3.

The tectonic activity of Menoikio was studied by Vavliakis et al. (1989). There are 3 categories of faults: a) Faults with a NE-SW direction, with lengths between 8-12 km and developed in the Alpine Orogeny period. These faults are found in Central and West Menoikio. b) Faults with a NW-SE direction founded in East Menoikio. These faults have been developed in the Pleistocene-Holocene period. c) Faults with a W-E direction. These faults can be separated in two groups; the first is situated in Central Menoikio and the second in NW and NE Menoikio. The first have been developed in the Upper Pliocene-Upper Pleistocene period, while the second in the Upper Pleistocene-Holocene period.



Greece has five main vegetation zones based on elevation (Micropoli-website). In addition, to these five there is also what is called the azonal zone (or riparian zone) that can exist in all elevation.  According Zaimes et al. (2010) the main characteristic of this vegetation is the high soil moisture because these areas are adjacent to water bodies. Out of these five zones in Menoikio Mountain you can find three and the azonal (riparian).

Submediterranean with deciduous oaks (Quercetalia pubescentis)

The first zone is the Submediterranean with deciduous oaks (Quercetalia pubescentis). The typical vegetation along the seacoast of Greece is the maquis shrubs, also called Mediterranean vegetation. As one moves to the interior of the country and towards the mountains regions, the Mediterranean vegetation recedes and is replaced by the zone of deciduous hardwoods and especially oak forests, which is known as Quercetalia pubescentis, because of the dominance of Pubescent Oak (Quercus pubescens). The climate in this zone is a transitional between Mediterranean and Middle-European.

In several sections in the lower elevation bands of the Menoikion, while the vegetation resembles the Mediterranean is actually is not. The ambiguity is caused by the wide spread of Kermes Oak (Quercus coccifera) in both vegetation zones. At the same time this zone in Menoikion lacks the basic species of the Mediterranean vegetation and in particular, the maquis shrubs such as the Mastic (Pistacia lentiscus), Wild Olive (Olea europaea var. sylvestris), Spiny Broom (Calicotome villosa), the Tree Heath (Erica arborea) and Pink Rock-Rose (Cistus creticus).

The zone is divided ecologically and floristically into two divisions: the subzone of ​​the Hophornbeam and Hornbeam (Ostryo-Carpinion) and th subzone of the broadleaved Oaks (Quercion confertae (frainetto)-cerris).

The subzone of the Hop-hornbeam and Hornbeam is further subdivided into three vegetation assemblages. The first is called Kermes Oak and Oriental Hornbeam (Carpinus orientalis) and has these two species, primarily. The second is called Oriental Hornbeam and dominates the eastern slopes of Menoikio. The Oriental Hornbeam is present but the Kermes oak is replaced by deciduous shrubs. The most common shrubs are: Flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus), Elm-Leaved Sumach (Rhus coriara), Maples (Acer spp.), Cornelian Cherry Dogwood (Cornus mas), Whitebeam (Sorbus spp), Hop-hornbeam (Ostrya carpinifolia), Pubescent Oak and Hungarian Oak (Quercus frainetto). Finally the third is the called Kermes Oak assemblage. These are areas that have been degraded by human activities and grazing.

As the altitude increase we move into the broadleaved deciduous oak (Quercion confertae (frainetto)-cerris) subzone. The subzone extends from the hilly to the mountainous regions of Menoikio. It starts at elevations of 600 m (sometimes even at 400 m) and extends to 1,300 m. This type of vegetation covers one third of all Greek forests. Two distinct vegetation assemblages exist, the Broadleaved Oak (Quercetum frainetto) and the Chestnut (Castanetum).

The first occupies the driest and relatively poorer areas, mainly on limestone substrates, where it is impossible to develop forest chestnut ecosystems. The main species area Pubescent and Hungarian Oak, Cade Juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus), Service Tree (Sorbus domestica), Common Hazel (Corylus avellana), Maples, Flowering Ash, Narrow-leaf Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia), Oneseed Hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), Silver Linden (Tilia tomentosa) and Hop-hornbeam.

The second assemblage represents mixed deciduous broadleaves that are composed of Chestnut (Castanea sativa), Linden (Tilia sp.), Common Hazel, Hungarian Oak, Maples, Hop-hornbeam, Common hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), and Flowering Ash.

The Beech and Fir Forest Zone (Fagion sylvaticae)

This Beech (Fagus Sylvatica) zone has the characteristics of cold, water-loving Middle-European vegetation. It is present on the eastern slopes of Menoikio Mountain, at elevations ranging from 600 m up to 1,600 m up on gneiss and limestone rocks. You can also find them on the northern part of Menoikio on granites. These Beech forests occur in scattered islets.

In the lower elevation areas Oaks and Chestnuts can be found. Other forest species of this zone are: Hop-hornbeam, Flowering Ash, Hornbeam, English Elm (Ulmus minor), Cornelian Cherry Dogwood, Damson Plum (Prunus insitia), Cade juniper, Common Juniper (Juniper communis), Oneseed Hawthorn and Oriental Flowering Hawthorn (Crataegus orientalis).

In the pure Beech Forest and in the prefecture of Drama near Micropolis there is a small area with mixed Beech and Hybrid Fir (Abies borisii-regis) forest.

The Mediterranean Mountainous (sub-alpine) meadows (Daphno-Festucetalia) Zone

Above 1,100 m, on the calcareous soils in West Menoikio you can find the Mediterranean Mountainous (sub-alpine) Meadows zone. The vegetation is mostly herbaceous. Shrubs occur sporadically and are in dwarf form because of the strong winds and snow. The height of vegetation does not exceed 50-70 cm The most common species Festuca varia, Festuca koritnikensis, Astragalus angustifolia, Astragalus depressus), Thymus cherlerioides, Thymus thracicus), Trifolium alpestre, Stipa pennata subsp. pulcherrima), Bromus riparius, Galium rhodopeum, Dianthus gracilis), Euphorbia baselicis, Anthyllis aurea and Genista tinctoria. This zone also includes famous limestone cliffs habitat with chasmophytic vegetation that are of great importance for the bird life in the area.

Azonal (Riparian) vegetation

This includes the riparian vegetation along the streams of Menoikio with intermittent and ephemeral flow torrents. Three of the most well-known torrents are Agiou Ioanni, Timiou Prodromou (Kokkinorema) and Makrypotamou. The riparian vegetation that grows along the Timiou Prodromou torrent is of great interest, because of the protective role in holding soils on steep and erosional banks of the ravine, and because on the great diversity of flora and fauna species. In the lower elevation riparian areas, Oriental Planes (sycamores) (Platanus orientalis) are abundant, while in the higher elevation areas the European Alders (Alnus glutinosa) are abundant. In certain places of the riparian areas of Elaiona torrent you can find reforested pines (Pinus brutia), and on the Timiou Prodromou torrent Cypresses (Cupressus sempervirens). Finally in the Makrypotamou torrent European Alders, willows (Salix spp) and Ash (Fraxinus spp) dominate.



The majority of the population in the greater region including the city of Serres lives in urban or semi-urban areas. There are also rural areas and many small villages both in Serres or Drama Prefectures. The next table shows the resident population the major villages and towns of Menoikio according the last census of 2011. (Hellenic Statistical Authority).

Table 1.  Some of the villages/towns in the Menoikio mountain along with their population and the Prefecture they belong too.



Greek name








Kali Vrisi

Καλή Βρύση



















Emmanouil Pappas

Εμμανουήλ Παππάς















Nea Zichni

Νέα Ζίχνη





















NATURA 2000 Network

            The existing fauna and flora of the Menoikio Mountain is unique. For this reason, it has been designated as a protected area in the “Natura 2000” Network. The Natura 2000 is an ecological network of protected areas in the European Union. It is based on the Habitats Directive (or formally known as Council Directive 92/43/EEC on the Conservation of natural habitats and of wild fauna and flora) and the Birds Directive (Council Directive 79/409/EEC on the Conservation of wild birds). The Birds Directive designates Special Protection Areas (SPA) and the Habitats Directive consists of Sites of Community Importance (SCI). (NATURA 2000 Networking Programme)


Menoikio Mountain is designated as (NATURA 2000 Public Viewer; FILOTIS – Database for the Natural Environment of Greece):

·          “KOILADA TIMIOU PRODROMOU-MENOIKION (GR1260009)” is a SPA site that covers approximately an area of 297 km2. The minimum altitude is 51 m while the maximum 1958 m with a mean altitude of 938 m.

·         “KORYFES OROUS MENOIKION - OROS KOUSKOURAS - YPSOMA (GR1260004)”is a SCI site that covers approximately an area of 233 km2. The minimum altitude is 227 m, the maximum 1963 m with a mean altitude of 1006 m.

Birds listed for Menoikio based on Annex I of Council directive 79/409/EEC:

Accipiter brevipes, Anthus campestris, Aquila chrysaetos, Bubo bubo, Burhinus oedicnemus, Buteo rufinus, Calandrella brachydactyla, Caprimulgus europaeus, Ciconia ciconia, Ciconia nigra, Circaetus gallicus, Circus pygargus, Coracias garrulous, Dendrocopos leucotos, Dendrocopos medius, Dendrocopos syriacus, Dryocopus martius, Emberiza hortulana, Falco biarmicus, Falco columbarius, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrines, Falco vespertinus, Ficedula albicollis, Ficedula semitorquata, Gyps fulvus, Hieraaetus pennatus, Lanius collurio, Lanius minor, Lullula arborea, Melanocorypha calandra, Neophron percnopterus, Pernis apivorus, Picoides tridactylus, Picus canus, Tetrao urogallus.

Regularly occurring Migratory Birds not listed on Annex I of Council directive 79/409/EEC:

Accipiter qentilis, Accipiter nisus, Alauda arvensis, Anthus spinoletta, Arthus trivialis, Apus apus, Apus melba, Buteo buteo, Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Columba palumbus, Cuculus canorus, Delichon urbica, Emberiza citronella, Emberiza melanocephala, Erithacus rubecula, Falco subbuteo, Frinqila coelebs, Hippolais pallid, Hirundo daurica, Hirundo rustica, Lanius senator, Luscinia meqarhynchos, Merops apiaster, Monticola saxatilis, Motacilla alba, Motacilla cinerea, Oenathe hispanica, Oenanthe oenanthe, Oriolus oriolus, Otus scops, Passer hispaniolensis, Phoenicurus ochruros, Plylloscopus bonelli, phylloscopus collybita, ptyonoproqne rupestris, Saxicola rubetra, Streptopelia turtur, Sylvia atricapilla, Sylvia cantillans, Sylvia commusis, Sylvia hortensis, Upupa epops.

Mammals listed for Menoikio based on Annex II of Council directive 92/43/EEC:

Barbastella barbastellus, Lynx lynx, Miniopterus schreibersii, , Myotis bechsteinii, Myotis blythii, Myotis capaccinii, Myotis emarginatus, Myotis myotis, Rhinolophus blasii, Rhinolophus Euryale, Rhinolophus ferrum-equinum, Rhinolophus hipposideros, Rhinolophus mehelyi, Spermophillus citellus, Ursus arctus.

Invertebrates listed for Menoikio based on Annex II of Council directive 92/43/EEC:

Callimorpha quadripunctaria, Cerambyx cerdo, Euphydryas aurinia, Lucanus cervus, Lycaena dispar.

Amphibians and reptiles listed for Menoikio listed for Menoikio based on Annex II of Council directive 92/43/EEC:

Bombina variegate, Elaphe quatuorlineata, Elaphe situla, Emys orbicularis, Mauremys caspica, Testudo graeca, Testudo hermanni, Triturus karelinii.

Other important species of flora and fauna:

Plants:Achillea chrysocoma, Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. Hispidissima, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Asperula aristata ssp. Nestia, Aster alpines, Bruckenthalia spiculifolia, Coeloglossum viride, Corallorhiza trifida, Cytisus agnipilus, Dactylorhiza kalopissii, Dactylorhiza sambucina, Dianthus petraeus ssp. Orbelicus, Epipactis atrorubens, Epipactis helleborine, Erysimum drenowskii, Fritillaria drenovskii, Gentiana cruciata, Haplophyllum balcanicum, Himantoglossum hircinum, Inula ensifolia, Iris reichenbachii, Lilium martagon, Neottia nidus-avis, Orchis simian, Paronychia rechingeri, Potentilla cinerea, Rosa arvensis, Satureja pilosa, Saxifraga ferdinandi-coburgi, Saxifraga stribrnyi, Sempervivum kindingeri, Sideritis scardica, Stachys officinalis, Thesium alpinum, Thymus leucotrichus, Thymus thracicus.

Reptiles:Cyrtodactylus kotschyi, Lacerta viridis, Ophisaurus apodus, Vipera ammodytes.

Mammals:Canis lupus, Martes foina, Meles meles, Mustela nivalis, Sus scrofa, Vespertilio murinus.

Other existing mammals: Erinaceus concolor, Lepus europaeus, Canis aureus, Vuples vulpes, Mustela putorius, Capreolus capreolus and there is also a significant population of wild horses (Equus caballus) settled in high altitudes (1500m).


Fire History of Menoikio

According to Maheras (2002) a large increase of forest fires can be observed in the Northern Mediterranean sub-region. The overall statistics of burned forests in Greece is alarming due to its climate and the urban sprawl as the human factor is responsible for the greatest share of fire outbreaks (Mimikou et al. 2007).

In the area of Menoikio Mountain (Greece) during the period 1984-2009 (26 years) a total of 106 fires burned 2208 ha (22.08 km2). According to Stais et al. (2009) these number raise concern especially considering the potential climate change impacts. As a conclusion, the monitoring an developing of management plan of the Menoikio Mountain should be a priority.



Blumenstein O., Weingartner H. and Vavelidis Μ. (2010) Qanats Between Menikion and Pangeon Mountains. A Forgotten and Endangered Resource for Local Water Supply. Scientific Annals, School of Geology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki

     Proceedings of the XIX CBGA Congress, Thessaloniki, Greece. Special Vol. 100, pp. 23-29


Maheras G. (2002) Forests fires in Greece. The analysis of the phenomenon affecting both natural and human environment. The role of sustainable development in controlling fire effects. M. Sc. Thesis. Environmental Science. Lund University. pp. 35


Mimikou M., Sarantidou C. and Ziliaskopoulos A. (2007) Study on Identification, Analysis and Categorization of Natural Disasters in Northern Greece. Systems Optimization Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering. University of Thessaly. pp. 64

Ministry of Development, NTUA, Institute of Geological and Mining Research, and Centre for Research and Planning, Master plan for water resource management of the country, Completion of the classification of quantitative and qualitative parameters of water resources in water districts of Greece, Contractor: Department of Water Resources, Hydraulic and Maritime Engineering – National Technical University of Athens, Ministry of Development, Athens, January 2003. pp. 549


Psilovikos A., Vavliakis E., Vouvalidis K. and Papafilippou-Pennou E. (2001) Geomorphological, Hydrographical and Sedimentological Processes at the Serres Basin due to Quaternary Fault Tectonics. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, Vol. XXXIV/1. Proceedings of the 9th International Congress, Athens, September 2001, pp. 451-457

Vavliakis E., Psilovikos A. and Sotiriadis L. (1981) Large surface karstic forms on the Mt. Menoikio / E. Macedonia. Hellenic Speleological Society 1st Speleological Symposium, V. 18, pp. 440-457

Vavliakis E., Mountrakis D. and Sotiriadis L. (1989) Morphotectonic observations and relative dating of the Neotectonic deformations in the Menikio Mountains (East Macedonia, Greece). Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, Vol. XXIII/1. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress, Athens, May 1989, pp. 289-302

Vavliakis E. (1989) Die Qanatsysteme in Griechenland. Untersuchung der Qanatsysteme in der Eparchia Phyllis von Serres aus morphologischer, hydrographischer und sozioökonomischer Sicht.- Thessaloniki, Aristoteles Universität, 93 S. (neugr.)

Zaimes G. N., Iakovoglou V., Emmanouloudis D. and Gounaridis D. (2010) Riparian Areas of Greece: Their Definition and Characteristics. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology Review, V. 3 (1), pp. 176-183


Greek References

Μουντράκης Δ. (1985) Γεωλογία της Ελλάδας. University Studio Press, Θεσσαλονίκη. σελ: 207.

Νιγριτινός Σ. (2005) Γεωγραφική Κατανομή της Βροχόπτωσης στο νομό Σερρών. Διπλωματική Εργασία. Τμήμα Γεωγραφίας. Χαροκόπειο Πανεπιστήμιο. σελ: 86

Ορφανίδου Ειρήνη (2008) Διαχείριση Υδρολογικής Λεκάνης Στρυμόνα. Διατριβή Ειδίκευσης. Τμήμα Αγρονόμων και Τοπογράφων Μηχανικών. Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης. σελ:  150

Παπαφιλίππου-Πέννου Ε. (2004) Δυναμική Εξέλιξη και Σύγχρονες Εξωγενείς Διεργασίες του Υδρογραφικού Συστήματος της Ταφρολεκάνης Σερρών. Διδακτορική Διατριβή. Τμήμα Γεωλογίας. Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης. σελ: 238

Πέννου Χ. (2009) Γεωμορφολογική Μελέτη της Λεκάνης του Αγγίτη Ποταμού. Διατριβή Ειδίκευσης. Τμήμα Γεωλογίας. Αριστοτέλειο Πανεπιστήμιο Θεσσαλονίκης. σελ: 73

Στάης Σ., Δημαλέξης Τ., Μπούσμπουρας Δ., Καστρίτης Θ. (2009) Σχέδιο Δράσης για την Ζώνη Ειδικής Προστασίας «GR1260009 ΚοιλάδαΤιμίου Προδρόμου - Μενοίκιο» Πρόγραμμα επαναξιολόγησης 69 Σημαντικών Περιοχών για τα Πουλιά για τον χαρακτηρισμό τους ως Ζωνών Ειδικής Προστασίας της ορνιθοπανίδας. Σύνταξη σχεδίων δράσης για την προστασία των ειδών προτεραιότητας» Υπουργείο Περιβάλλοντος Ενέργειας & Κλιματικής Αλλαγής. σελ:27

Λουκάτος Α., Σέλλας Ν., Σκουλάξινου Σ., Κορύζη Κ. Εμμανουηλίδη Β. Φιρφιλιώνης Γ. (2009) Τροποποίηση Περιφερειακού Σχεδιασμού Διαχείρισης Απορριμμάτων Περιφέρειας Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης. Περιφέρεια Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης. Περιβαλλοντική Μελέτη της Εταιρείας ΕΠΕΜ Α..Ε παραδοτέα στο Γενικό Γραμματέα Περιφέρειας Ανατολικής Μακεδονίας και Θράκης



FILOTIS – Database for the Natural Environment of Greece

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Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT.)

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